Indicators of force of muscles of the lower extremities are also various at engaged in different types of sport. The size of force of a razgibately shin is more at handballers (77k and hockey players (71k, it is less at skiers — racers (64k, it is even less at cyclists (63k. in force of muscles — razgibatel of a hip big advantage at hockey players (177k whereas handballers, skiers and in force of this group of muscles have no cyclists of essential distinctions (139 — 142k.
By origin, to a structure and even function muscular tissue is non-uniform. The main property of muscular tissue is ability to reduction – to tension of the elements making it. For ensuring the movement elements of muscular tissue have to have the extended form and be fixed on basic educations (bones, cartilages, skin, fibrous connecting fabric, etc.).
Muscular tissue takes part in all movements made by the person. It promote advance of blood on vessels, food – on a digestive tract, exchange products – on urinary tract, a secret of glands – on channels, etc.
The bones bearing big loading are richer with calcium salts, than the bones bearing smaller loading. On roentgenograms of a bone of athletes have more accurate drawing, than bones not of athletes that is explained a bigger ossifikatsiy bone tissue, the best saturation by its mineral salts.
In different types of sport load of muscles is various both on intensity, and on volume, in it statistical or dynamic elements can prevail. It can be connected with the slow or fast movements. In this regard and the changes happening in muscles will not be identical.
So, in indicators of force of muscles of the top extremities (muscles — sgibatel and razgibatel of a forearm, razgibatel of shoulders the athletes specializing in hockey and a handball in comparison with skiers — racers, and cyclists have a clear advantage. In force of muscles — sgibatel of a shoulder superiority of skiers over handballers, hockey players and cyclists is noticeable. Big distinctions in force of muscles of the top extremities between hockey players and handballers it is not observed. Quite accurate distinctions are noted in force of muscles — razgibatel, and the best indicator at hockey players (73k, is slightly worse at handballers (69k, skiers (60k and cyclists (57k. At not playing sports this indicator makes all 48kg.
At loadings of mainly dynamic character the weight and volume of muscles also increase, but to a lesser extent. There is a lengthening of muscular part and shortening of the tendinous. Muscle fibers settle down more in parallel, as the spindle-shaped. The quantity increases, and sarkoplazma becomes less.
In a body of the person about 600 muscles are. The majority of them steam rooms are also symmetrized on both parties of a body of the person. Muscles make: men have 42% of body weight, women have 35%, athletes have 45–52%.
Change of internal structure of a bone under the influence of sports activities are expressed, in particular, in a thickening of its compact substance. And the thickening usually is more in those bones on which loading falls. But changes of compact substance can also occur and without its thickening, without change of diameter of a bone. Due to the thickening of compact substance the marrowy cavity decreases. At big statistical loadings it decreases almost before full overgrowing
The spongy substance of a bone also undergoes certain changes. Under the influence of the strengthened load of a bone of a crossbeam of spongy substance become thicker, larger, between them it is more than cell (at advanced age of a cell too there are more, but crossbeams.
In muscular tissue there are sokratitelny elements of a cage (miofibrilla), trophic (a kernel and cytoplasm with all organelles) and basic (cover) Distinguish two types of muscular tissue: smooth and cross-striped, in the last, in turn, emit skeletal and heart muscular tissue.
Distinctions in force of muscles — sgibately foot and the razgibatel of a trunk promoting in the first case to pushing away, and in the second — to deduction of a pose are especially interesting. Hockey players have indicators of force of muscles — sgibately foot make 187kg, at cyclists — 176kg, at handballers — 146kg. Force of muscles — razgibatel of a trunk at handballers is equal 184kg, at hockey players — 177kg, and at cyclists — 149kg.
The simplest mechanism of emergence at athletes of change of a skeleton can be presented as follows. Under the influence of the strengthened muscular activity there is a reflex expansion of blood vessels, food of the working body, first of all muscles, and then and nearby bodies, in particular a bone with all its components (the periosteum, a compact layer, spongy substance, a marrowy cavity, cartilages covering articulate surfaces of bones, etc.) improves.